Obligation to fast the month of Ramadan upon the sighting of the crescent and likewise the obligation to break the fast upon the sighting of the crescent.
If the sighting becomes unclear in the first part of the Ramadan and in the last part, then the month is completed 30 days are completed.
Here we have the following hadith from Bukhaari and Muslim;
- Hadith Abdullah ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه); he mentioned this month of Ramadan, Do not fast until you see the crescent and do not break the fast until you see it and if it becomes unclear upon you then count the days (meaning fulfil the 30 days).
- Hadith of Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allahﷺ said: The month is sometimes like this and sometimes like that (meaning sometimes 30 days and sometimes 29 days)
- Hadith of ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:We are the ummah (nation) that is illiterate, we do not write, nor do we count so a month is sometimes like this and sometimes like that (meaning sometimes 29 days and sometimes 30 days)
- Hadith of Abi Hurairah (رضي الله عنه), that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said fast according to the sighting and break the fast (meaning stop fasting) according to the sighting of the Moon at the end of the Ramadan and if it becomes unclear upon you then complete 30 days of Sha’ban
Shaykh ‘Ubayd al-Jaabiri (حفظه الله)said, “These 4 hadith prove 2 things:
- One should try their best to look for and find out the crescent of Ramadan. One should look for the crescent for Shawwaal which signifies the end of Ramadan. The meaning of this is that fasting of Ramadan and end of Ramadan is established by sighting of the moon (by the naked eye). As for those who try to use various astrological calculations to see whether the crescent has come or not, then it is a grave mistake that is against the sunnah of Messenger ﷺ, such that sunnah of messenger ﷺ could be lost by this way and method. The beginning and end of Ramadan is established by the sighting of the crescent with the naked eye.
- If they cannot see the actual crescent with the naked eye then they should fulfil the 30 days of Sha’ban. So, they complete the 30days of Sha’ban and thereafter they began their fast of Ramadan. Likewise, for the end of Ramadan, if they cannot see the crescent of Shawwaal then they complete the 30 days of Ramadan.